The device drain system for private homes – it is much more responsible than it might seem at first glance. Engage in its creation "by eye" – hence, risk to live on the "wet spot". Only a thorough and balanced approach will not meet on this path are numerous pitfalls and create a truly comfortable home. Calculation without marriage gutter system is composed of many elements: pipes, gutters, sinks, brackets, tees, clamps, elbows, etc. The main task of the designer – to ensure that the number and size of gutters match the configuration of the roof area and number of diverted rainwater. Traditionally it is considered that the ramp area of approximately 100 square meters.
m, usually quite a drain pipe to which a gutter size. If the area of 200 square slope. m gets an additional pipe or used more elements. In any case, the length of the gutters to the receiver water should not exceed 10 meters, and if this distance is longer, it is recommended to put another tube. To avoid mistakes in design, should make preliminary layout of the drainage elements. The easiest way to do it right on the photocopies of roof designs. In this case, clearly visible to the whole future of the system and its elements. After checking the plan starts assembly, passing by the standard procedure: first fixed horizontal piece (troughs and sinks), then there is linkage of vertical drain pipes. The course of construction works influences the type of buildings, particularly roofs, characteristics of the facade.
Most of the inhabitants of the Russian "" confident that the only hope for improving living conditions for them is resettlement. For apartment owners in panel five-storey building of the first series, these expectations are not without meaning, however, cause for optimism is not at all. Completely demolished, "" yet no one is going. Moreover, they began to repair under the federal program overhaul, the Fund's reform of public utilities. Many homeowners do not show her proper interest, because they believe that the case be limited to regular painting walls and replacing the canopies above the entrances.
However, this opinion is erroneous. Nowadays people in "" has a real chance to radically improve their living conditions, will not moving. And pay for it will only a few thousand. What is an overhaul According to Federal Law 185-FZ of regulatory programs overhaul, if necessary, can be done full reconstruction of residential buildings, which includes repair of all intra-house engineering systems, repair or replacement of elevator equipment, repair roofs and basements space, insulation and replacement of the facades. It should be noted that overseas the practice has been used for quite some time and quite successfully. Especially large-scale projects to upgrade entire blocks of old housing panel (By the way, mostly five-story building, too) have been implemented in the former East Germany after German unification. As a result, managed to avoid the demolition of reinforced concrete "barracks" and turn them into a modern and comfortable building. Incidentally, the list of repairs from the Germans was almost the same as that provided by the law 185-FL: repair-house communications (water, sewerage, heating, electricity), repair or replacement of elevators, roofs, facades, insulation and renovation of cellars.
Wiring of large houses is usually a hidden removable wiring that runs in channels formed in the factory making panels of interior walls and ceilings. If wiring is carried in the channels and cavities using a wire marks apn, appv and appvs (aluminum, flat with vinilitovoy insulation without disconnecting ear for a hidden electrical wiring – to gost 6323-62), then must comply with certain conditions. For example, one channel is allowed wiring to the joint strip a few wires to the total number did not live more than eight. When performing wiring should be pay particular attention to the quality of manufactured feeds and nests in the panels, check out their pattern, peel, if necessary, from an influx of laitance. Before you start wiring to avoid damage wire insulation, all channels at the entrance and exit to be processed by hand-rolling cutter drill. Sockets and switches are mounted in sockets Straining paws. Robert J. Shiller will not settle for partial explanations. When the diameter of the nest is greater than the solution’s feet, then the nest cement in the usual round junction boxes, which already secured socket or switch. If the wiring is made carefully, the force pulling the installation of products exceeds 20 kg.
During installation wiring, vias should provide a mineral wool for sound insulation. Recesses for desoldering the wires in the wall panel closed with steel caps, which prevent damage to wires on the tenants applied arrows indicating the direction of channels with wires. Wiring to a large extent depends on the design elements of buildings and interior layout of apartments. For example, concealed wiring in the radial pattern can run the wires mark the ASW-500 in the pipes (usually glass), or a appv and apn. In this simplified installation, reduced consumption of wire and other materials. Wiring in the same way, but with separate groups Power sockets and light points slightly increases the flow of wires, but this is offset by a decrease in the number of boxes and ration wires.
During the economic chaos occurring immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many residents of Russian cities had forgotten what it means to live in decent conditions. High-rises built decades ago, gradually wear out, but on repair them still can not raise funds in the budgets of different levels. But here's the first time in many years, in dealing with this problem there has been a shift in the patient: the federal program, implementing a "Foundation for Assistance Housing Reform ", apartment houses were finally repaired. However, very often the work are not held in full or in violation, as evidenced by complaints of perturbed residents. Certainly, resentment of owners we have, it is unclear else: why the question often raised after the completion of all work and signing their acceptance? Who, as neither the tenants, in front of which was carried out repairs should have been sound the alarm at the first sign of improper performance of the contractors of their obligations? Simple rules are not cheated – did not work: on this principle, there are many unscrupulous contractors. However, those who can most effectively control their work directly on the ground – tenants themselves directly concerned with quality of repairs – are often "bethink" only after its completion. As a rule, it becomes a cause numerous "public" scandals of recent times. "Before signing the acceptance residents the right to express all the claims about the quality of work performed. If the contractor can not meet them should be contact the management company or hoa "- said the mayor of Krasnoyarsk Pyotr Pimashkov in his address to the citizens.
So you've decided to equip area near your holiday home. Now it is necessary to choose the basic concept of your future garden. Perfectly decorate any area skillfully executed flower beds, Win-Win will be refined decorative pond, which will give the landscape freshness and serenity. To create a romantic atmosphere suitable lush beautiful garden with trees, in the shadow of which can be relaxing summer evenings. You might want to arrange a barbecue and swimming pool. If you have children, you can also equip a playground with swings. In short, the possibility of how to make site – the mass. To ensure that all would wish to embody in life and look perfectly, the best choice would be to use the services of landscape designers. With the help of a professional, you can choose the style of your future garden, it is advantageous to organize space, harmoniously combining it with the exterior of your home or cottage. Professionally decorated suburban area will be your favorite place to relax after work, people, fill you with peace of mind and make your stay in a country house is really comfortable.
Continuing the review on the market of St. Petersburg designs of greenhouses, which began in previous releases, discuss the design features of frameworks and consider the various options. In our opinion, the best choice of material for a greenhouse frame is a metal profile. On its merits, we mentioned in earlier editions. Now take a closer look at the materials. One option the material or aluminum corner profile. The advantage is its ease and low corrosivity. Under normal conditions, the metal is covered with an oxide film, and practically does not react with other materials.
In addition, this material is easily has been processed, even with hand tools. Assembling the frame greenhouses made of aluminum produced at the bolted joints. However, during the operation greenhouses there is a need to make different fertilizers in the soil. Including chemicals containing ammonium salts. In this case, the protective coating frame can be broken, and then in a short time aluminum will literally crumble, which significantly worsen the rigidity of the frame, as well as can be lead to its destruction. Not in favor of this material is the fact that scrap aluminum has a high value on the market. Therefore, it is likely that one day in spring "happy" summer visitor finds plot only the broken parts of your favorite greenhouses, a skeleton is stolen what some ushlymi homeless. Would not wish this to anybody, but when choosing the material must be taken into account such problems.
The most common material used in the construction of suburban greenhouses is a steel profile. Compared with aluminum, he, of course, require additional anti-corrosion treatment, but much cheaper and allows the assembly to welding or sheet joints with locking fasteners with special screws. Important when choosing a material is the wall thickness of the steel profile and its cross section. Frequently used profile 20×20 mm for arcs and transverse bars, and for the frame base profile 40h20 mm. Even if you use the same profiles of greenhouses on the market value is significantly different from different manufacturers. Under equal other costs big role in the formation of prices for finished playing a greenhouse wall thickness profile. Of course, the thicker, the better. But we must be clear value for money when choosing a frame material. When operating the greenhouses in the climatic zone of the Leningrad Region with snow cover up to 1 m can be considered the best use of steel profiles with a wall thickness of not less than 1,5 mm. Calculations and practice show that such a greenhouse can withstand snow loads of up to 80 cm around the greenhouse. It should be noted which is largely resistant to the greenhouses snow loads depends on the design features of the framework. The next issue we consider the most common options frameworks of greenhouses.
Conceiving the construction of suburban summer homes or cottages, many continue to prefer wooden houses. Wooden houses – is not only a tribute to tradition, it is a choice of durability, strength and aesthetics. Wooden houses attract weary of the hustle and bustle of the inhabitants of high-rise buildings for many reasons, one of which – the closeness to nature. Wood – an exceptional material that with proper treatment and can serve as horoshemuhode very long. Wooden houses due to good thermal insulation properties of the material are presented in the July heat, cool, and is surrounded by a warm winter. The air in the forest are full of flavor, it has healing properties – a tree allocates volatile to prevent colds and viral diseases.
Mistaken one who calls the wooden houses of old and dusty. It is necessary to look through the directory of houses, and you can make a different conclusion. New technologies in construction permit to build these palaces of wood! Wooden houses are built of different materials. Some prefer a log house, hewn by hand, someone they like the house made of logs. Recently more popular are home from a bar. In the construction used several types of timber – timber of natural moisture, profiled bar, and laminated veneer lumber. Brus natural moisture – is calibrated with a log square or rectangular cross-section.
Manufactured logs at the factory, at 4 Kant, or manually with a saw. The phrase "shaped beam" speaks for itself – items given to a certain profile. As the benefits of profiled bar indicates the minimum shrinkage and low heat loss. Glued laminated timber – a material is the most popular. Produce it were about 30 years ago. Such material is produced by bonding specially treated under the pressure of boards, slats. Glued laminated timber, compared with profiled dried better and gives a marginal shrinkage. Home from a bar – is at home with smooth walls that do not require additional finishing. In addition to these characteristics at home from a bar and retain the main advantages of wooden structures – they are environmentally friendly, have good insulation. Construction companies offer directory of houses, including including houses of timber. Wooden houses, types of which can be seen in the photograph, provide an opportunity to see their aesthetic appeal. If you compare home from a bar and house of logs, you can see benefits first. Home from a bar (shaped) are going faster than homes made of logs. Minor shrinkage (under3%) give a home from a bar, which almost immediately you can do finishing work, installing stairs, windows. Houses made of logs should give shrinkage – it takes almost a year. Another plus – the house of timber is moisture in the walls of these seldom cracks. Undoubtedly, the home of logs also have their advantages. It is believed that the house made of logs are extremely durable. Wooden houses, from whatever material they were made, this is an excellent choice. Live in them happily, comfortably and comfortable.
Marbella (Marbella) – Resort, located 60 km from Malaga, considered the pearl of the Costa del Sol. This is the most luxurious and fashionable resort, not only in Spain but also throughout Europe, which affects the views of the beauty of its gardens and parks. Along the entire waterfront stretch of extraordinary beauty, sandy beaches, on the part of the city surrounded by palm trees. It was this beautiful city attracts many celebrities, aristocrats and influential businessmen, who buy luxury villa here. Among them: members of the royal family, the American television screen stars and even Arab sheiks. Marbella, like many resort towns of Spain is divided into two parts: the old town and modern city.
However, the architecture of modern buildings in Marbella is not violated, and, even, perfectly complemented the ensemble of the old part of town. Currently, real estate abroad, especially in Europe, attracting more and more the number of Russians. And it is not only excellent quality property abroad, a relatively inexpensive cost and excellent living conditions. Foreign real estate – it is also a profitable investment. In addition, by buying house in Spain on the coast, you can enjoy sea and sun with friends or relatives while on vacation or holiday weekend.
Undoubtedly, the choice of housing is not a role played by its geographical location. Spain, a country with mild climate and high living standards, has always attracted many tourists. A holiday in Spain – is a romantic and unforgettable impressions, but to live and play in Spain – a dream. Spain – is the country in which to invest money in overseas real estate, buy a second home abroad and to ensure a stable future. Buying a house in Spain, you get a chance to save to stay in this country. If you do not intend to live permanently in Spain, you can very beneficial to take an apartment or house, as the Spanish real estate is now very popular among the renters.